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雅思学术类考试阅读判断题标准探讨

时间:1970-01-01 08:00  来源:未知  阅读次数: 复制分享 我要评论

 雅思学术类考试作为准备出国学习的一项成绩,在很多学子的出国路上造成了不小的障碍。而阅读部分一大难点是其变化多端、纷繁复杂的题型,这些题型粗粗地算来可以分为九大类:标题对应题、真假判断题、总结题、简答题、句子完成题、图表填空题、配对题、选择题、流程图题。在这些题型当中,真假判断题占到了将近40%。所以判断题的做题好坏直接决定了考生在阅读上的成绩。
 
  在是非无判断题的考试中,考生要对试卷上所列出的一系列命题(即陈述句)进行判断。如果这些陈述句是反映观点或者态度的,那么考生的任务就是判断这些句子是否和作者的观点一致。在这种情况下,答案的选择是“YES”“NO”或者是“NOT GIVEN”。如果这些陈述句表述的内容是有关事实信息,那么考生就要判断这些句子是否和文中的信息一致。在这种情况下,答案的选择是“TRUE”“FALSE”或者是“NOT GIVEN”。这里要特别说明的是在考试中“YES”“NO”“NOT GIVEN”和“TRUE”“FALSE”“NOT GIVEN”只是考试形式的区别,在判断方式上并没有本质区别。

 

    >>> 雅思阅读:笔是最得力的工具

 

  一、判断标准

  那么,我们需要拿什么标准来判断我们的命题是否正确呢?现在有很多不同的说法,在多年的教学经验的基础上,我总结出了这样的标准:

  TRUE或YES:所需判断的陈述句中所有的考点词汇和原文中的表达完全对应。

  FALSE或NO:所需判断的陈述句中至少有一个考点词汇和原文中的表达想矛盾。

  NOT GIVEN:所需判断的陈述句中在没有错误的前提之下,至少有一个考点词汇文章没有提到相关内容。

  用表格的形式表述如下:(假设被判断的命题中有三个考点)

 


   二、实例分析

  下面结合剑桥雅思4上面的具体题目来讲解一下我的判断标准。

  首先来解释TRUE/YES的标准:所需判断的陈述句中所有的考点词汇和原文中的表达完全对应。从表述中可以看出,正确的标准是唯一性的,只有在全部考点都正确的情况下,该命题才能被判断为TRUE/YES。

  Academic Test 1
  Reading Passage 1

  3.
  题干:It has been suggested that children hold mistaken views about the "pure" science that they study at school.

  原文:Many studies have shown that children harbour misconceptions about "pure" science, curriculum science.

  分析:此题答案为TRUE。从两个句子表达中不难看出,两句话都是针对children这同一对象,并且在观点陈述中hold对应harbour都作动词,表示“包含,拥有”, mistaken views对应misconceptions,表示“错误的概念”, that they study at school对应curriculum science,在这里curriculum做名词,表示“学校课程”的意思。

  4.
  题干:The fact that children's ideas about science form part of a larger framework of ideas means that it is easier to change them.

  原文:These misconceptions do no remain isolated but become incorporated into a multifaceted, but organised, conceptual framework, making it and the component ideas, some of which are erroneous, more robust but also accessible to modification.

  分析:虽然原文是一个长难句,但从表达意思的主体上来看并没有太大的改变。children's ideas about science对应these misconceptions,都指的儿童对于科学的认识,只不过文章中表达为错误的概念,form part of a larger framework of ideas对应do not remain isolated but become incorporated into a multifaceted, but organised, conceptual framework,都表达了儿童的观点形成了一个大的框架的观点,区别就在于文章对这个框架作了一些详细的描述,means that it is easier to change them对应making it and the component ideas, some of which are erroneous, more robust but also accessible to modification,在这里,考点的对应集中在了easier 正好对应了文章中的more accessible, to change them对应了modification.
  
  7.
  题干:The study reported here follows on from a series of studies that have looked at children's understanding of rainforests.
  原文:These observations are generally consistent with our previous studies of pupils' views about the use and conservation of rainforest...

  分析:在这里,关键的考点对应集中在了follows on from对应了consistent,都表示“一致的”意思,a series of studies that have looked at children's understanding of rainforests对应了our previous studies of pupils' views about the use and conservation of rainforest,同样表示了“之前已经研究过的儿童对于热带雨林的观点”。
  
  Academic Test 3
  Reading Passage 1

  12
  题干:The children have to pay back slightly more money than they borrowed.

  原文:All S.K.I programs have charged interest on the loans...generally the rates have been modest (lower than bank rates)

  分析:题干中表达the children have to pay back... more money than they borrowed对应文章中All S.K.I programs have charged interest on the loans,全部计划都要收利息,所以儿童必须还钱,并且有了利息的存在,所以儿童要还比他借的钱多的一部分的钱;并且,slightly对应了modest, generally the rates have been modest(lower than bank rates),利率不多,并且比银行的要低,所以只高出了一点点。
  
  Academic Test 4
  Reading Passage 1

  1.
  题干:Modern official athletic records date from about 1900.

  原文:Since the early years of the twentieth century, when the International Athletic Federation began keeping records......

  分析:about 1900对应the early years of the twentieth century,Modern official athletic records date from对应when the International Athletic Federation began keeping records
  
  6.
  题干:The growing international importance of athletics means that gifted athletes can be recognised at a younger age.

  原文:Over the past century,...but with increasing global participation in athletic-----and greater rewards to tempt athletes-----it is more likely that individuals possessing the unique complement of genes for athletic performance can be identified early.

  分析:The growing international importance of athletics对应with increasing global participation in athletic-----and greater rewards to tempt athletes, gifted athletes对应individuals possessing the unique complement of genes for athletic performance,recognised at a younger age对应more likely...can be identified early.
  
  从这些例子中可以看出,所有被判断为正确的陈述表达无一例外的都和文章中的考点表达存在一一对应的关系。
  
  接下来,来看看FALSE / NO的判断标准:所需判断的陈述句中至少有一个考点词汇和原文中的表达想矛盾。无论其他的考点是什么结论,只需要其中有一个考点是错误的,那么这个命题的答案就是错误的。
  
  Academic Test 1
  Reading Passage 1

  1.
  题干:The plight of the rainforests has largely been ignored by the media.

  原文:In the face of the frequent and often vivid media coverage......

  分析:ignored与coverage矛盾,文章表达了媒体关注了雨林,而题干的表达却是忽视,二者相矛盾,因此为错误。
  
  5.
  题干:The study involved asking children a number of yes/no questions such as "are there any rainforests in Africa?"

  原文:Secondary school children were asked to complete a questionnaire containing five open-form questions.

  分析:题干中说的是一般疑问句的提问方式,而文章中给出的信息是five open-form questions,意思为特殊疑问词提问的问题,相矛盾,鼓为错误。
  
  Academic Test 2
  Reading Passage 1

  10.
  题干:The Navajo language will die out because it currently has too few speakers.

  原文:Only 250 languages have more than a million speakers, and at least 3,000 have feweer than 2,500. It is not necessarily these small languages that are about to disappear. Navajo is considered endangered despite having 150,000 speakers.

  分析:文章中给出的信息看出,Navajo is considered endangered可以和The Navajo language will die out对应,但是文章中说的Navajo给出它有150,000个说话的人,从数量上来说并不少,而题干中说it currently has too few speakers相矛盾,故为错误。
  
  Academic Test 3
  Reading Passage 1

  9.
  题干:Any street child can set up their own small business if give enough support.

  原文:Being an entrepreneur is not for everyone, nor for every street child.

  分析:题干中说“任何街道儿童都有机会建立他们自己的小生意”,而原文中说“成为企业家并不是每个人能做,也并不是每一个街道儿童能做”,二者表述相互矛盾。
  
  11.
  题干:Only one fixed loan should be given to each child.

  原文:The loan amount in S.K.I programs have generally ranged from US30-100.

  分析:文章中给出信息贷款数量是可以变化的,但题干中的fixed loan是“固定贷款”的意思,相互矛盾。
  
  从以上的例子中可以看出,命题表达中至少会有一个考点需要做出判断,无论其他考点怎样,只要我们能从中找出一个考点是错误的,那么该命题就是错误的。
  
  最后,我们来看看NOT GIVEN的判断标准:所需判断的陈述句中在没有错误的前提之下,至少有一个考点词汇文章没有提到相关内容。从表述中可以看出,被判断的命题中,首先不能有错误的成分存在,因为只要出现了错误点,那么该命题就是FALSE/NO了。只有在没有错误点出现的情况下,至少有一个考点文章中没有提到,那么该命题就可以被判断为NOT GIVEN。而在考试中,有一种NOT GIVEN情况很好判断,就是全文没有找到相关内容,那么就可以直接下结论了。看看下面的例子:
  
  Academic Test 1
  Reading Passage 1

  6.
  题干:Girls are more likely than boys to hold mistaken views about the rainforests destruction.

  原文:More girls(70%) than boys(60%) raised the idea of rainforest as animal habitats…more girls(13%) than boys(5%) said that rainforests provided human habitats.

  分析:从原文的表达中可以找到题干的部分信息Girls are more likely than boys,但是后半部分信息在文章中没有出现,所以该命题为NOT GIVEN。
  
  8.
  题干:A second study has been planned to investigate primary school children’s ideas about rainforests.

  原文:One encouragement is that the results of similar studies about other environmental issues suggest that older children…

  分析:从题干和原文的表述中可以看出,二者并不存在对应关系,所以答案为NOT GIVEN。

  Academic Test 2
  Reading Passage 2

  21.
  题干:Alternative therapists earn higher salaries than doctors.

  原文:Part of the incentive was financial, Dr. Laver said.”The bottom line is that most general practitioners are business people. If they see potential clientele going elsewhere, they might want to be able to offer a similar service.”

  分析:题干中的关键点在于中医的工资比其他医生要高,而原文只陈述了从事中医这一行的人很多是商人,他们为了能留住顾客,也想提供同样的服务,但并不能得出结论说中医就比其他医生工资高的结论,二者表述不相关,答案为NOT GIVEN。
  
  Academic Test 3
  Reading Passage 1

  10.
  题干:In some cases, the families of street children may need financial support from S.K.I.

  原文:There are tremendous advantages to involving parents or guardians in the program……

  分析:题干中提到家庭需要获得财政资助,但是文章中只是谈到说能有父母或者监护人的参与会有很多好处,并没有提到说家庭需要财政资助的问题,二者并不相关,所以为NOT GIVEN。
  
  从这些例子中可以看出,在判断中,只要命题中没有错误信息出现,而同时又有考点在文章中找不到匹配的信息,那么该命题的答案就是NOT GIVEN。